The scaling model for pipeline length is given in Eqn. 8.5. 13.8. The capital costs are calculated, as in the above two cases (Sections 9.3.1 and 9.3.2), on the basis of the cost of the material (basically heat-exchanger tubes/plates) used in the whole system. Over time the cabin starts to cool and the capacity falls to a steady ~ 2.75kW as the returned air temperature approaches that of the outlet. The behaviors of the curves are similar to those shown in Figure 10.2. 0000067817 00000 n The only problem area in conveying this type of material is in the transitional region between dilute and dense phase conveying at low values of pressure drop. In the first stage scaling is with respect to conveying distance, and this includes both pipeline orientation and bends. The equivalent length of the plant pipeline, Le2, with 300 m of horizontal pipeline, 25 m of vertical pipeline, and seven 90-degree bends is: The data for the test pipeline can now be scaled to that for the plant pipeline. 13.9. In Fig. Because air and other gases are compressible, volumetric flow rate will change with both pressure and temperature. FIGURE 10.10. The data are presented on two plots. Approved by eNotes Editorial Team. Conveying air velocity has a significant influence on conveying performance and in dilute phase conveying, there is only a narrow band of operating values. The concentration of the solution at the absorber outlet is 62.9%, which is quite high. The exergy efficiency also increases as the mass flow rate of drying air decreases, as expected since the exergy efficiency is inversely proportional to the mass flow rate of drying air. If the total atmospheric pressure is P and the water vapour pressure is p, the partial pressure of the dry air component is P - p . These two elements were considered in Chapter 16, “Pipeline Scaling Parameters.” This procedure was considered at this point in the previous case study and an expression for the equivalent length, Le, of a pipeline was given with Eqn. A linear relationship is observed between exergy efficiency and humidity ratio. The working form of this scaling model is Eqn. Conveying characteristics for nylon pellets in the Fig. Operating at such high concentration increases the risk of crystallization of the solution at low temperatures during the plant shut down. 10.6) for each of seven bends, gives: Substituting this value, the airflow rate of 0.330 kg/s and the pipeline bore of 0.105 m into Eqn. Yahoo fait partie de Verizon Media. SuperMaku SuperMaku. From: Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide (Third Edition), 2016, David Mills, in Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide (Third Edition), 2016. 8.3. Thus two constraints arise to ensure that the sensible and latent loads of the space are met. These were presented earlier in Fig. 13.8 pipeline. Besides this we specify upper bounds on the air velocities to prevent splash entrainment and flooding of the solution in the absorber and the regenerator. Fig. The optimization problem has been solved by using the modified Box Complex method developed by Dhar [4]. These two figures show that that the lines drawn fit the data very well and that there was very little scatter in the results. This is reproduced here as Eqn. Variation of process exergy efficiency with temperature of drying air for several product weights. With a conveying-line inlet air pressure of 0.85 bar gauge, the case for stepping the pipeline to a larger bore is marginal. Taking the pipeline friction factor, f, to be 0.0045, the length of the plant pipeline, L, as 325 m, the pipeline bore, d, as 0.105 m, and the bend loss coefficient as 0.2 (see Fig. The relationship between solids loading ratio and minimum conveying air velocity that has been used is presented in Fig. The figure referred to (Figure 11.12) is reproduced below as Fig. Either way the new airflow rate will come to 1.87 kg/s. About air; 1.2929 kilogram [kg] of air fits into 1 cubic meter; 0.00075 ounce [oz] of air fits into 1 cubic inch; Air weighs 0.0012929 gram per cubic centimeter or 1.2929 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. 20.5 for application in this case: It is the 3.17 tonne/h that needs to be scaled here and substituting data into this equation gives: This is greater than the 15 tonne/h required, but significantly less than 15 tonne/h would be achieved with a smaller 200 mm bore pipeline. 9.10, reproduced here as Eqn. 6.19) the cost of this energy should also be incorporated in the objective function unless the system uses waste heat available from the local sources. Variation of process exergy efficiency with mass flow rate of drying air for several product weights. Actual values of both material flow rate and airflow rate corresponding to the new operating point—(b)—are indicated for reference. 20.2 gives: The original operating point on the material conveying characteristics on Fig. A sketch of the pipeline is presented in Fig. Why Do Objects Have Mass? This theoretical exercise also reveals a potential operating problem. When only a single point is used the intermediate stage of the data scaled to the plant pipeline, of the test pipeline bore, is not available. The design here is based on a conveying-line inlet air velocity of 17 m/s and Eqn. This is shown on Fig. 16.7. Air-only pressure drop values need to be established and so this procedure is also included. The mass flow rate of liquid solution in the regenerator cannot be taken as independent variable since this is the same as the liquid flow rate at the exit of the absorber.

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