He was nicknamed "the hairy Houdini" and was the subject of a fan club, T-shirts, bumper stickers and a song titled The Ballad of Ken Allen. [20] Similarly to gorillas and chimpanzees, orangutans have 48 diploid chromosomes, in contrast to humans, which have 46. Usually, there is a specific male in a group that mature females will exhibit preference for. Sumatrans encounter threats such as logging (both legal and illegal), wholesale conversion of forest to agricultural land and oil palm plantations,[24] and fragmentation by roads. The genetic diversity was found to be lower in Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) than in Sumatran ones (Pongo abelii), despite the fact that Borneo is home to six or seven times as many orangutans as Sumatra. In 1817, an orangutan joined several other animals in London's Exeter Exchange. They mostly favour ficus fruits because they are easy to get and easy to digest. Orangutans arm spam is longer than their height, which is good for their lifestyle of living in the trees. Social contact facilitates cultural transmission. [79], Tool use in orangutans was observed by primatologist Birutė Galdikas in ex-captive populations. They have been exterminated from lowland forests in Sumatra, and same has nearly happened in Borneo. Groups generally consist of female clusters and a preferred male mate. The average height of a male orangutan is 1.4 metres and they weigh about 90 kilograms. This may be because they cannot ensure they will sire a female's next offspring, because she does not immediately begin ovulating again after her infant dies. [1], As of 2017, approximately 82.5% of the Sumatran orangutan population was strictly confined to the northernmost tip of the island, in the Aceh Province. [1] However it has been concluded that forest conservation costs twelve times less than reintroducing orangutans into the wild, and conserves more biological diversity. Lophotus Fischer, 1813 [92], In June 2008, Spain became the first country in the world to recognise the rights of some non-human great apes, when its parliament's cross-party environmental committee urged the country to comply with the recommendations of the Great Ape Project, which are that chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and gorillas not to be used for animal experiments. [20] The Sumatran orangutan genome was sequenced in January 2011, based on a captive female named Susie. [29] This type of habitat conservation approach has been pursued by the World Wide Fund for Nature, who joined forces with several other organizations to stop the clearing of the biggest part of remaining natural forest close to the Bukit Tigapuluh National Park. They have curved fingers and toes that can help them to grip onto branches better. According to volunteers at BOS, albino orangutans are extremely rare (one in ten thousand). Once the fruit is safe, the ape will eat the seeds using the stick or its fingers. The research shows, in the most recent three cases of slow lorises eaten by Sumatran orangutan, a maximum mean feeding rate of the adult orangutan for an entire adult male slow loris is 160.9 g/h and, of the infant, 142.4 g/h. [86] When building a nest, orangutans appear to have some technical knowledge of construction and choose branches they know can support their body weight. [100], Orangutans first appeared in Western fiction in the 18th century and have been used to comment on human society. Orangutans live to about 35 to 40 years in the wild and they can live up to 60 years in captivity. Status: Both sub-species are endangered Appearance. Since their hip joints have the same flexibility as their shoulder and arm joints, orangutans have less restriction in the movements of their legs than humans have. This call lasts up to about two minutes and is probably used to warn other males and to signal females during the mating season. Yet, in 2014, a Sumatran orangutan, ten years in captivity, was the first of its species to die from Streptococcus anginosus. Orangutans are also known to produce smacks or blow raspberries when making a nest. Pongo tapanuliensis [120][39] The table below shows a breakdown of the species and subspecies and their estimated populations from this or (in the case of P. tapanuliensis) a 2017 report:[118][121][119], Several organisations are working for the rescue, rehabilitation and reintroduction of orangutans. They reach adolescence at six or seven years of age and will socialise with their peers while still having contact with their mothers. Oran's reliability, honesty and status as a "natural man" stand in contrast to the cowardice, greed, folly, and inequality of "civilised" human society.


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